Ask the Dietician !

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Harriette Lynch
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 Harriette Lynch

Consultant Dietician and Exercise Specialist
BA Ec / Soc, BSc Nut / Diet, M.I.N.D.I., N.C.E.H.S., REPS

Harriette Lynch is the Director of healthpro and a renowned Consultant Dietician. She completed her BSc in Nutrition and Dietetics at the University of Chester. Harriette is a Registered Dietitian with the Irish Nutrition and Dietetic Institute and is also a Level 3 Registered Exercise Professional.

She takes a holistic approach to dietary management, thoroughly examining all factors that may impact on an individuals' capacity to meet their nutritional needs and devises practical solutions that can be implemented in home, work and social settings.

Harriette is often asked to speak and write about many nutritional and exercise topics, in the past she has written articles for the UK press, and radio. Harriette often gives seminars to large corporations which have included; Bank of America, Marcus Lynch Solicitors, The Coeliac society of Ireland, Beshoff Bros fish and chip shops , bay Restaurant and Covidien pharmaceutical company.

She was the representative speaker at the Irish Coeliac Society’s conference held in Portlaoise. Harriette is also the Consultant Dietician for Lois Bridges eating disorders clinic in Sutton.

Harriette is a keen sports person having completed numerous triathlons and marathons including the Ironman UK long distance Triathlon in August 2009. Harriette is a keen advocate for healthy living and practices what she preaches.

Web: www.healthpro.ie

cj (not verified)

Hi Harriette, welcome to the forums. I have a question regarding my diet. I complete a number of 5mile - 15 mile races throughout the year but quite often after a race i will develop a head cold or even a cold that will keep me out of action for a number of days. i thought my diet was pretty good, have 3 meals a day with lots of carbs, fruit and some veg. Have you any suggestions on any improvements and diet I should focus more on?

EoinOB
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Hi Harriette,
I'm a runner and also do some gym work as cross training. I decided to get a food intolerance test (via blood sample) done and it has shown a big intolerance to baker's and brewer's yeast. I'm quite healthy with my diet anyway, but this will be tricky. I've been told to stop eating any yeast, wheat or dairy products and also to stay away from sugar and fruit! I love fruit, so that's a big deal.
Do you have any recommendations or can you point me to a resource for this type of diet to maintain the correct balance and nutrition for my workouts?
Many thanks,
Eoin

Anonymous (not verified)

i tend to tone up so much that i look to skinny. i only do short runs a couple of times a week and would like to increase my miles. i have also been told i am low in iron and am currently on medication for this. i have a good apetite and balance diet. have you any suggestion

many thanks

olive

Harriette Lynch
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Hi Guys, Many thanks for your posts and sorry for my slow reply..honestly it has taken me awhile to figure out how to reply or should I say how to post my feedback...and honestly it was really easy!!
What I will do is read over your posts and answer them individually over the weekend.
Many thanks CJ for your warm welcome..
I will look forward to answering all the queries over the weekend.
Until then, Happy Training, Harriette.

Harriette Lynch
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Hi, my apologies again for my slow response but I am back in action in the virtual world!!
CJ, your query is one that I often get in the healthpro dietetic clinic. Although I do not know much about your training plan and nutrition intake I will summarise areas below that may cause this feeling of illness after your performance and areas for you to consider improving on....
It sounds initially to me that you could be overtraining - however without knowing your training plan and work / life commitments that is something you would have to look into. Start at looking at your training - is your racing season periodised? Do you have a number of priority races or is every race a priority? Do you have an off  / on Season or do you training continuously through out the year? It is essential to honestly answer these questions to establish how much is going into your training.
Other areas that could be affecting your ability to recover are the following:

  • depletion of your glycogen stores in your active muscle
  • hypoglycaemia
  • dehydration
  • deficiency of your essential vitamins and minerals
  • inadequate intake of antioxidants and phytochemicals.
  • insufficient protein intake

Planning your nutrition to key to your training. You stated in your comment that you eat three meals per day. I would recommend that you focus on achieving light meals through out the day and ensure that you do not leave a gap of more than four hours between your main meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner). If the gap is loner than four hours then choose a light snack (< 200 calories  - of course this varies depending on your nutritional requirements) and make sure you eat the right training snack prior to your training and refueling within the first 30 minutes after your training.
I hope you find of the above useful. At any stage if you could like to book in a dietetic assessment please do not hesitate to contact the healthpro office on 086 4119222 or email info@healthpro.ie
Many thanks, Harriette.

Harriette Lynch
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Hi Eoin, firstly I would love to know what triggered you to go and get the allergy testing. Were you presenting with clinical symptoms?
I was delighted to read that you went the of a blood sample of testing but with out knowing your whole story e.g. training  / lifestyle / previous symptoms  / dietary intake etc specific advice I am unable to achieve.
For those who are experiencing symptoms abdominal cramping / bloating, stomach upset / acid reflux quite often an allergy test is quite often the route that is taken. In my experience in our clinic many of these symptoms have seen to be resolved through establishing a balanced diet suited to the individual concerned. Was this the first route you took or did you go straight for the allergy test?
Getting the right balance of nutrients from a yeast / wheat / gluten  / dairy / sugar ? free diet is quite a task but not impossible. My main question as a dietitian is really do you need to avoid such a volume of nutrients?
When consuming a yeast / gluten  / wheat free diet choose carbohydrate such as quinoa, rice white  / brown, noodles (rice only), potatoes, sweet potato, rice based cereals & specific wheat / gluten and yeast free muesli. Always choose a protein source with your main meals.  A variety is key to inoder to consume a wide variety of nutrients. Think: lean red meat, chicken, turkey, lentils, butter beans, chick peas, kidney beans and tofu. To obtain a good intake of vitamins and minerals choose approximately 4 - 5 portions of vegetables per day where 1 portion is between 80 - 100g.
Regarding the avoidance of sugar / fruit unless you are being treated for fructose malapsorption or chronic IBS then elminating fruit from your diet leaves me confused. But with that in mind, you would never be told to avoid all fruits as some have lower levels of fructose which can be tolerated. I would suggest that you do avoid all refined sugars such as biscuits, cakes, muffins etc....
I hope that I have been some assistane in answering your query. If I can be of any further assistance please do not hesitate to contact me or you can make an appointment with the healthpro team by calling 086 4119222 or email info@healthpro.ie
I just want you to note that nutrient deficiency is highly prevalent in populations that are cutting their nutrition in order to try resolving some symptoms they may be feeling. Eoin, please seek dietary advice from a dietitian prior to embarking on nutrient restricted diet and always make sure the information provided can be scientifly justified.
Many thanks for your query, Harriette
 

Harriette Lynch
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Hi Olive, Many thanks for your query. Firstly, I would love to know what is preventing you from increasing your milage. Is it that you are beginning to train or that you are fatigued during your training and that you do not feel like increasing your distance. The reason why I suggest the latter is you highlight to me that you are low in iron.
Bring low in iron is something that needs to be resolved ASAP. Are you a vegetarian? If you are a vegetarian low iron can be quite common as the body finds it harder to consume a non haem iron. However, if you are not a vegetarian choose to eat lean red meat at least once or twice per week.
From your description above it sounds to me that your nutrient intake may not be balanced to your requirements. Without knowing more about you such as your anthropometrics (body fat, BMI, body circumference etc), training volume and what your current intake is imposible to be able to give to you specific guidance this we would require to discuss in more detail in a consultation. However, below I have highlighted a few areas for you to consider in your diet.
Points to consider:

  • Make sure you are consuming a wide variety of nutrients
  • Make sure you are consuming approximately 2 - 3 portions of protein per day
  • Calcium is essential to prevent against osteoporosis always make sure you are getting approximately 2 - 3 portions per day. One dairy portion  = 200 mls milk, 150 g yoghurt or 2 slices of cheese
  • Consume at least two portions of lean red meat per week
  • Choose dark green leafy vegetables to assist your intake of iron.
  • When consuming iron rich foods try to consume with a glass of orange juice. As vitamin C assists the absorption of dietary iron.

I hope you find the above points will help you. If you have any further queries or you would like to discuss your case further please contact me or make an appointment with the healthpro office on 086 4119222 or email info@healthpro.ie
Many thanks for your query, Harriette.

EoinOB
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Hi Harriette, thanks for your reply. I do eat a pretty good and balanced diet. I usually eat 5 small meals a day including protein with most meals. I snack on nuts and fruit. I would only have 3-4 cups of coffee a week and never eat cakes/biscuits or sugar drinks (coke/fanta etc). I was training 5 days a week with two days having two training sessions.
What prompted me to get the test was bloating and sinus blockage, but nothing that was leaving me in any pain. I've seen a big difference in these having been on the diet for 4 weeks already, but I decided over the weekend to go back on all fruit. It hasn't made a difference, so that's good.
Thanks, Eoin

olive (not verified)

thanks Harriette for your response. a stool sample a few months ago showed phyolri bacteria so i was on medication for that and also scince then i have been on iron tablets. i am due to get my bloods and stools checked againn in the new year, so maybe if its clear this will help my energy levels. thanks againn.

Anonymous (not verified)

hi,I am having problems running distances.once I have being running for about 40 min I always have the urgent need to use a toilet and not for a wee. I am training for a 1/2 marathon at the moment and would appreciate any suggestions.thanks

kpscanlon
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harriette
i am currently training with seb as my "online coach" in a forum on this site.  in the past 2 years i have taken up running and lost a lot of weight.  i was 127kg ad am now 89kg.  i am 37 years old and 5'9" tall.  a short stocky build.  anyway, i seem to have stalled a this weight for the past 6 months.  i am careful about what i eat but as the weekly mileage increases my appetite does the same.
is there any advice you can give to help me lose the last few kg??  i would love to get into the 77-79kg range.
thanks, kp

Harriette Lynch
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Hi,
Needing to go to the toilet urgently while out running is quite often a problem found in runners and when I say the toilet I do not mean to urinate. There can be a number of reasons for this but the most common reason can be due to too much fibre in the diet.
If you are consuming a diet rich in carbohydrates (insoluble fibre sources), fruit and vegetables this can tend to trigger your problem. Insoluble fibre improves our stool transit time which means our stools become more frequent. Running can also stimulate the stool movement so it can be a case of trying to figure out what is the best nutrition for you to reduce your stool transit time especially when running or in competition.
To be able to assist you further I would need to know your consumption over a seven day period including all your training and also your body composition. If this appeals to you then please contact us at healthpro and we can arrange an appointment with a dietitian. Ph: 086 4119222 or email: info@healthpro.ie
Many thanks for your query and I hope I have helped you to some degree
Harriette.

Harriette Lynch
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Hi KP,
Many thanks for your query. Firstly congratulations on your fabulous weight loss so far. From the details that you have provided for me I see that you have really changed your lifestyle - I love hearing such great news.
Without knowing you, the following statistcs are recommended for somebody of your age, weight and height by achieving these figures you will be reducing your risk factors of developing clinical conditions in later life. Weight: < 76 Kgs  BMI: 19 - 24.9 Kg / m2, waist circumference (navel) < 94 cm and a body fat percentage of < 19 % (taken from callipers). Presently I know your weight and BMI and curently you are lying in the overweight cateogry.
A weight plateau is quite often experienced as for everything there are many reasons this might happen. But the main one in my experience is when your training quantity increases as you have highlighted above so does your calorie intake. To keep this at bay you must focus on the type of energy  / calories you are consuming. Ideally I would really need to know more about you to be able to provide you with sound scientific advice suited to your body but the following points may help you below:

  • Make sure you break you fast within 30 minutes of walking up. If you train first thing that might be something as simple as a yoghurt.
  • Never go longer than 3 - 4 hours without eating. This means if your breakfast and lunch are more than 4 hours apart (quite often they are in our hectic lives) then a small snack of approx (200 kcals) should be consumed. This could be as simple as 4 brazil nuts or 2 rice cakes with peanut butter or a 150g creamed rice portion with dried apricots.
  • Make sure you are consuming adequate fluid intake. When I mention fluid I do not mean just water. I mean make sure the foods you are consuming are hydrating foods. That means that they have a good percentage of water naturally in the foods. E.g. Vegetables, Fruit.
  • Watch out for sugar. Quite often when people are trying to loose weight they can tend to choose lower fat options that are higher in sugar or they tend to consume a large amount of fruit. I would recommend no more than two portions of fruit per day (one portion  = 80 - 100g of fruit).
  • Without knowing your training schedule it is dificult for me to guide you on appropriate calorie consumption. But typically your range for weight loss could lie between 2000 - 2400 kcals per day. If you are undereating your requirements weight stagnation may be experienced. I like to think of this as your body trying to conserve its energy and does not fire on its full metabolism. Hence a weight stagnation.

Think great quality foods - think protein and wholegrain carbohydrates. Portions sizes are key and there is no need for you to be feeling hungry when you are eating right for your body.
I hope the above advice / information will assist you. However KP if you require any further assistance please do let me know. Ideally we would need to conduct a full assessment including VO2 Max level, body composition, 7 day nutrition plan and full training guide to be able to provide you with the correct informaiton for you to excel. If this interests you please contact the healthpro office today on 086 411922 or email info@healthpro.ie and we can arrange a time to talk with a healthpro dietitian.
I would like to wish you all the best with your training. Is there a specific event that you are training for?
Many thanks, Harriette.

kpscanlon
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harriette
thanks for the great advice.  i am very interested in losing this last 10-12kg. i will email your office and try to arrange an appointment. 
kp

FirstTimer (not verified)

Hi Harriett,

I'm wondering if you can help.
I'm training for a first marathon in 4 weeks. I did my first 18 mile run yesterday and felt fine during it - drank plenty water, had 4 energy type tablets and a few jellies - but when I came home felt very nauseous. Drank a couple of glasses of water and threw it all up, then had some food and threw it all up too. Then drank some sugary tea and got back to normal eventually.
What can I do to fix this? Did I not eat enough before the run do you think and if so - how do I know how much I should eat?
Any help would be appreciated, thanks.

lisap (not verified)

Hi Harriet,

Just wondering if you can give me some advice. I had a little baby girl mid december, my first. I started running as a reletive beginner three weeks ago when she was 3 .5 months. I have been taking it easy and running 5-6 days, I have now built up to 6k. I am still breastfeeding and supply has not been an issue since starting. I am feeling extremely tired though. I am loving the running and don't want to stop or slow down. I eat well i think. I'm not great with meat but eat fish 3-4 times a week, and various beans and pulses 1-2. I would eat three good meals, fruit yogurt and musli for breakfast but and don'tsnack much. Is there anything i should be adding to my diet?

Thanks in advance
Lisa

Ger2012 (not verified)

Hi Harriet,

How much does it cost to get a full assessment including VO2 Max level, body composition, 7 day nutrition plan and full training guide?

Many thanks
Ger

Anonymous (not verified)

Hi Harriet

Basic question but I am starting to train for my 1st half marathon
On sept 2nd. Have been advised to look at my diet, was not given
A rough idea of what to, what to avoid. I did a 10mike run in
March which really burnt me out, would not like the same happen
again. Any advice?

Many thanks
D

rowrunner
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  I used to be really fit, rowed competitively for years at quite a high level (trained 14 times a week etc etc). So went back running recently and can do the 5k no problem (not as easy as it was 15-20 years ago but I can do it). I was doing 4x times a week and loved it (not only for the fitness but also for my head I have 4 children under 9 and I am at home with them all day). Then got struck down by a kinda flu (had a lot going on) aches, pains, cold and sore throat and went back running again Friday .. loved it again, did more than I though I could do.... So the question is how much should I run 3 times or 4 times a week - is 5k enough (just want to be sure I don't over do it either). Also is the running going to be enough for weight loss or do I need to consider a diet plan too ? I have already lost over a stone in SW but more in inches and everyone is commenting on it, which is kinda slowing my diet loss down with all the positive comments I have posted on the coach forum for advice on the training but basically what I want to know is will the weight continue to fall off just by running and eating fairly healthy and how much do I need to run every week ? Thanks

Harriette Lynch
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Hi Harriet
Basic question but I am starting to train for my 1st half marathon
On sept 2nd. Have been advised to look at my diet, was not given
A rough idea of what to, what to avoid. I did a 10mike run in
March which really burnt me out, would not like the same happen
again. Any advice?
Many thanks
D
 
Hi D, Many thanks for your post to this forum. Congratulations on choosing to train for a half marathon these races are great fun and truly rewarding. The key to a successful half marathon is sound training ensuring that no overtraining results and of course your diet. If you do not fuel your body effectively you will not have the fuel in your muscles to complete a half marathon true to your ability. Nutrition is key.
I love in your post that you place that this is a basic question - that could not be further from the truth and I am delighted you have contacted me. Dietary requirements are based on many factors such as gender, age, activity level to name a few. To avoid becoming injured or sick a balanced diet is essential.
Unfortunately I do not know much about you other than that you are going for your first half marathon. What I will do as I believe there are many people out there is to suggest that you contact me on my email: harriette@healthpro.ie and I will then send to you a nutrition tracker and ask you to document your intake for the week. I will also ask for further detail such as your training etc. This I will then document and post as an article case study format so hopefully helping more people out there.
I shall look forward to hearing from you,
Many thanks,
Harriette

Harriette Lynch
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"I used to be really fit, rowed competitively for years at quite a high level (trained 14 times a week etc etc). So went back running recently and can do the 5k no problem (not as easy as it was 15-20 years ago but I can do it). I was doing 4x times a week and loved it (not only for the fitness but also for my head I have 4 children under 9 and I am at home with them all day). Then got struck down by a kinda flu (had a lot going on) aches, pains, cold and sore throat and went back running again Friday .. loved it again, did more than I though I could do.... So the question is how much should I run 3 times or 4 times a week - is 5k enough (just want to be sure I don't over do it either). Also is the running going to be enough for weight loss or do I need to consider a diet plan too ? I have already lost over a stone in SW but more in inches and everyone is commenting on it, which is kinda slowing my diet loss down with all the positive comments I have posted on the coach forum for advice on the training but basically what I want to know is will the weight continue to fall off just by running and eating fairly healthy and how much do I need to run every week ? Thanks"
Thanks RowRunner for your query and sorry to hear that you were unwell. I hope you have made a speedy recovery. Personally I feel that running is one of the best forms of exercise - you always feel great after a good run. However, when focusing on weight loss quite often running at the same pace and level will not be the most effective. It is essential that your training is varied especially for weight loss. I would recommend that you divide your running into different sessions e.g. choose one day where you run steady, then another day choose speed work and then another day focus on hill reps. It is this varied intensity that will increase your metabolism and promote further weight loss if a balanced diet is bring consumed.
Variety is key when it comes to nutrition and training..if you do the same thing everyday you will get the same results. So choose variety...vary your breakfasts,  lunch and dinner. Try not have the same two days in a row e.g.If you have a bagel with chicken and salad for lunch then the following day choose a wrap with salmon and salad or a baked potato with mixed beans and mixed salad with spring onion and tomato.
Well done on your weight loss so far...remember to aim for a weight that lies between a BMI of 18.5  - 24.9 Kg / m2. Ideally running three to four times per week will work but do choose to vary the intensity of your sessions. And finally think great nutrition. Choose hydrating foods and think variety.
If I can be of any further assistance please do not hesitate to contact the healthpro office on 086 4119222 or email info@healthpro.ie
Many thanks, Harriette.

rowrunner
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 Thanks a million for that Harriette. Thats invaluable information. One other question.. do I need to have every run over 45minutes to loose weight like someone suggested.
Thanks
 

Harriette Lynch
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Hi RowRunner, no the time is not a necessity. It really depends on what you are trying to achieve. For example if you are sticking to a 5km distance at a recreational runner level then a speed session might only last a total of 30 minutes. The key to successful weight loss, injury prevention & invaluable training are the FITT principles (Frequency, Intensity, Time and Type of training). An example of a training programme could be the following:
Day 1: your longer run at a lower intensity heart rate (70 - 80% MHR)
Day 2: Speed session. This could include a 10 minute warm up and 10 minute cool down with 10minutes of running 1 minute hard (HR > 85% MHR) and 1 minute easy (reducing HR back to below 85%).
Day 3: Could be a 10 minute warm up followed by 10 by 100m hill intervals with 100m recovery on the descent followed by a detailed cool down. Cool downs are essential for recovery.
Day 4: Could be another longer slower run with a lower heart rate similar to day 1.
Don't forget to include your core training with invaluable stretching and finally sleep - the essential part of recovery. I personally have a 2 hour before mid night rule which really works for me.. :-)
I hope this helps. Many thanks, Harriette.

rowrunner
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 This is absolutely perfect... just need to find a hill now !!!
Thanks a million
 

Harriette Lynch
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Too funny!! I have an abundance of hills around me!! :-)

Anonymous (not verified)

Hi I am training for half marathon and my weekend long runs are now at 13k, I am unsure what I need to eat/drink during my long run. I'm not keen on carrying water around with me as I found the 'sloshing' distracting. Also are the gels necessary or is there a healthier alternative that could be easy to consume whilst running.

Harriette Lynch
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"Hi I am training for half marathon and my weekend long runs are now at 13k, I am unsure what I need to eat/drink during my long run. I'm not keen on carrying water around with me as I found the 'sloshing' distracting. Also are the gels necessary or is there a healthier alternative that could be easy to consume whilst running."
Hi Anonymous, Many thanks for your post.
Hydration and fuel are essential to racing, training and indeed performance. If we fuel to perfection or even get 10% of it right we will tend to perform to a higher level on race day. Hydration and fueling depend on a number of variables namely, weight, gender, training and length of time out running. If you could supply to me at least three of those variables (Weight, Age, and time taken to complete 13 Km) I will be able to provide you with a more detailed answer.
With regards to the sloshing about I find a fuel belt absolutely amazing when out training and running long distance races. The fuel belt means you can hold any where from 1 8 oz bottle up to 6 8oz bottles depending on the model that you buy. The fuel belts go around your waist too so that means your hands are free to run and be relaxed. Take a look at www.fuelbelt.com for further information here.
As for gels well that will depend how long it takes you to complete the half marathon. I generally recommend some sort of energy products for anything over 75 minutes of racing. Yes there are more natural products about and you can also make your own energy products depending on whether you prefer to take on gels, liquids or solid fuel when running.
I hope I have been of some assistance but as I said if you can provide me with a little bit more detail then I will be to direct you a little bit further. 
If I can be of any further assistance please do not hesitate to contact the healthpro office on 086 4119222 or email info@healthpro.ie
Many thanks, Harriette.

Anonymous (not verified)

Hi Harriette, I am a 35 year old female and I weigh 8st 12lb and I'm 5'7". I run my long runs at about a pace of 6 mins30 sec, so takes me about 1.5 hours to do 13k and I'm increasing that long run by 10% a week until I reach the 21k for the race. I would like to try either liquid or solid alternatives to gels if possible, that is if they have the same benefits or am I better off taking gels??i will check out the web page for the belt, thanks

TheVillageIdiot
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Posts: 37

 Harriette,
I run plenty of marathons but my diet is terrible and I struggle to keep my weight down. I am about 13.5 stone and would like to get down to closer to 12 stone and keep it there. I am just over 6 foot.
I have desperate trouble controlling my intake of junk food and chocolates/sweets and despite high mileage the pounds aren't coming off.
I sometimes go a few days without eating crap and then pig out and completely undue all the previous days efforts. It's especially hard after a tough day at work when I take the easy option of pizza and chocolate
I know its a lack of will power, but would appreciate any advice or inputs you may have. Where are you based by the way. Thanks
 

liltcrush
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Hello Harriette,
I am a long time runner, short distance usually 10k's (roughly 47mins)  but also train with a running club doing speed work and runs for cross country. I have always wanted to do a marathon so have started training for Dublin a few weeks ago. I have an under active thyroid (10years now) and take 200mg of eltroxin daily (for the last 2 years) I have it monitored by doctor. Do I need to take anything to assist my body during the long runs so far I find them ok but I also work long hours about 55hrs a week and dont want to get run down.

Harriette Lynch
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"Hi Harriette, I am a 35 year old female and I weigh 8st 12lb and I'm 5'7". I run my long runs at about a pace of 6 mins30 sec, so takes me about 1.5 hours to do 13k and I'm increasing that long run by 10% a week until I reach the 21k for the race. I would like to try either liquid or solid alternatives to gels if possible, that is if they have the same benefits or am I better off taking gels??i will check out the web page for the belt, thanks"
Hi, looking at your reported body stats (briefly) one of the key areas that you should focus on is maintaining your body weight at your current BMI of 19.5 Kg / m2. This is important as much lower will place you in an underweight zone which could further deplete your run ability.
Presently, you are running about 13 km in 1.5 hours which means you are estimating your 21 km run to take about 2 hours 12 mins or so. If I have this correct then I would recommend that for all exercise after 60 minutes you begin to take a liquid form of supplement. On your next training run (if you have a fuelbelt of 2 - 4 8 oz bottles) I'd recommend you try a sachet of High 5 2:1 supplement or similar. Fill this in a mixer and add to your bottles I'd recommend that one bottle contains pure water and one contains your energy mixture. Then I'd recommend to sip on this during your exercise starting at about 30 minutes alternating between the water and the energy drink. Alternatively you could use watered down orange juice too. Remember to gently sip on your energy drink. Other fuel alternatives which can be handy on the run are: Jelly Babies, Cliff Shot Blocks and Ride shots (Power bar). These are all easy to carry when running and provide you with a wee bit of a sugar hit.
Fueling on the run is one thing but please remember that fueling outside your running in your day to day activity is equally or more important than the fuel you take in training. The fuel you consume daily is what is fueling your muscle for performance. Make sure you are eating regularly and that you are staying hydrated (at least 1960 mls per day + 1000 mls per 1 hour of exercise). When I say hydrated I don't just mean water. You also get hydrated from your food choices such as fruit and veg, fish, stews and soups to name a few.
The key to successful training and performance is the following: rest (sleep - 7- 8 hrs), nutrition, stretching & core, and a tailored training program.
I hope you will find the above information useful. If I can be of any further assistance please do not hesitate to contact the healthpro office on 086 4119222 or email info@healthpro.ie
Many thanks, Harriette.
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Harriette Lynch
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Joined: 2010-09-20
Posts: 35

"Harriette,
I run plenty of marathons but my diet is terrible and I struggle to keep my weight down. I am about 13.5 stone and would like to get down to closer to 12 stone and keep it there. I am just over 6 foot.
I have desperate trouble controlling my intake of junk food and chocolates/sweets and despite high mileage the pounds aren't coming off.
I sometimes go a few days without eating crap and then pig out and completely undue all the previous days efforts. It's especially hard after a tough day at work when I take the easy option of pizza and chocolate
I know its a lack of will power, but would appreciate any advice or inputs you may have. Where are you based by the way. Thanks"

Hi The VillageIdiot, Many thanks for your query.
It sounds from your post above that you appear to be an emotional eater. When things get tough you tend to grap the next available food item. There could be reasons for this and might be in need of addressing (e.g. what do you think triggers the urge to consume junk food) or it could be basically an imbalance in your diet which can cause cravings and those urges are hard to refuse.
From experience with our clients who have had similar urgers I noticed these cravings were reduced significantly or elminated from the diet once we established a balance in their diet which suited their nutritional requirements. What I have noticed is that when people consume more than 120 - 140g of sugar per day their cravings intensify. So looking at your diet in detail is a must.
Now, looking at your body stats at 13.5 stone (84.8 Kgs) and at 6ft (1.82m) it appears that you are slightly overweight with a BMI at 25.6 Kg / m2. Instead of thinking of the magical 12 stone (mentioned above) BMI 22.9 Kg / m2, I would strongly recommend you focus on small goals such as reducing your weight step by step by 0.5  - 1 Kg per week. This will be more beneficial to your metabolism. Small changes allow your body to adapt and will boost your metabolism which is what you are looking for in the long term. Ideally, you should be focusing on reducing your BMI to < 24.9 which means your first goal is to achieve a weight of 83 Kgs over a 3 week period. This would then reduce your BMI from 25.6 Kg  / m2 to 25 Kg / m2. Then your next step will be to reduce then down to 82 Kgs over a 2 week period. Remember, it is not just all about your weight but also your body fat and waist circumference.
Re your training I'd recommend reducing your milage and begin to complete sharp and intense sessions work on your speed and strength. Complete interval style sessions which means you are running 1 min hard then 1 min easy over a period of time.
Tips re your nutrition: think of smaller but more regularer meals during your day. Never have a long gap in your day  - eat every 3 - 4 hours. Stay hydrated and think of hydrating foods such as fruit, vegetables, fish, chicken, stews, soups etc. Your fluid intake can come from food not just water consumption.
Our clinic is based in Howth, Co. Dublin (daily) and in Dublin (once per month).
I hope you find the above information useful but If I can be of any further assistance please do not hesitate to contact the healthpro office on 086 4119222 or email info@healthpro.ie
Many thanks, Harriette.
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Harriette Lynch
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Joined: 2010-09-20
Posts: 35

"Hello Harriette,
I am a long time runner, short distance usually 10k's (roughly 47mins) but also train with a running club doing speed work and runs for cross country. I have always wanted to do a marathon so have started training for Dublin a few weeks ago. I have an under active thyroid (10years now) and take 200mg of eltroxin daily (for the last 2 years) I have it monitored by doctor. Do I need to take anything to assist my body during the long runs so far I find them ok but I also work long hours about 55hrs a week and dont want to get run down."

 
Hi Liltcrush, Many thanks for your post. It's great to hear that you are training hard for the Dublin Marathon. In a nut shell, yes you will need to assist your body's fuel stores as your long runs become longer.
Firstly for all those who are reading this post an underactive thyroid is better known as hypothyroidism. It is a condition when your body is unable to produce an adequate level of thyroid hormones. Treatment of this condition is vital and often requires medication such as Eltroxin. There are many side effects to this medication that is why when first placed on this medication close monitoring is a necessity.
Unfortunately, this condition slows down your metabolism which can often result in rapid weight gain. It is strongly recommended that a structured exercise regimen is commenced while focusing on your nutrient balance.
Exercise is essential for everybody's wellbeing, however when suffering from an underactive thyroid exercise has been shown to reduce the symptoms associated with this condition. The symptoms associated are: fatigue, lethargy, poor digestion and a slow metabolism. It is strongly recommended that when suffering from an underactive thyroid that an interval training regimen is followed with a combination of cardiovascular exercise and strength training.
Liltcrush, is is eveident that you are following a exercise programme and it is great to hear that you are running 10 km in 47 minutes - does that mean you are heading for a 3hour 40 minute 42.2km (marathon) run? Due to your long working hours and your increased training it is imperative that you focus on your diet to make sure you are receiving the correct amount of nutrients for your body and clinical condition. Make sure you are eating regularly - this will ensure your metabolism stays boosted. During your long runs (60 minutes+) I would recommend perhaps bringing with you an energy drink (or a homemade energy drink such as 1/2 juice 1/2 water) this will keep your energy boosted during your run. What you do not want happening is that your glycogen stores become too depleted and that you run out of energy. Keep sipping on your fluid's that you should begin to carry with you. I would recommend getting into a routine of sipping every 2 km. I would also recommend getting something similar to a fuel belt seen on www.fuelbelt.com this means you can carry 2, 4, 6 or even 8 8 oz fluid bottles. But remember during your training keep an eye on your blood profile to ensure your hypothyroidism is kept under control.
In summary this is what I would concentrate on during your day to avoid being run down:

  • Make sure you are getting enough sleep (7 - 8 hours per night). Sleep and nutrition I would place as more important than getting all your training completed. Focus on recovery - you will reep the rewards.
  • Eat regularly  - this will keep your metabolism boosted.
  • Do not overconsume on fruit  - aim to keep your fruit intake to about 2 - 3 portions per day but boost your vegetable intake.
  • When out training on runs greater than 60 minutes I would recommend an energy drink such as High 5 or make your own as highlighted above).

I hope you find the above information useful.
If I can be of any further assistance please do not hesitate to contact the healthpro office on 086 4119222 or email betterhealth@healthpro.ie
 
Many thanks, Harriette.
 
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chris_mc
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Joined: 2010-03-27
Posts: 19

Hi Harriette. i have IBS and i'm careful enough with what i eat, i run 15-20 miles a week at the moment after injury. I do up to 10k races nearly weekly.
My problem is this when i'm in a race and trying to put in effort my stomach starts and i want to be sick, i was once after a race. I never feel my stomach anyting but dodgy even when im taking it easy. i make sure not to eat too soon before running and i have an empty bowel. Can u recommend the best foods to eat for a runner with IBS please i would really like to improve my distance and time but i feel i'm being held back.
 

Harriette Lynch
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Joined: 2010-09-20
Posts: 35

"Hi Harriette. i have IBS and i'm careful enough with what i eat, i run 15-20 miles a week at the moment after injury. I do up to 10k races nearly weekly.
My problem is this when i'm in a race and trying to put in effort my stomach starts and i want to be sick, i was once after a race. I never feel my stomach anyting but dodgy even when im taking it easy. i make sure not to eat too soon before running and i have an empty bowel. Can u recommend the best foods to eat for a runner with IBS please i would really like to improve my distance and time but i feel i'm being held back."

Hi Chris,
Many thanks for your email.
Firstly I would like to question why you are suffering from IBS. It is really not normal (if normal is the right word to use) for a person to experience such stomach problems when running up to 32 km per week. Actually, even if you were doing ultra marathons this is not something that you should be experiencing. However, unfortunately you are not alone out there many people do experience similar.
IBS is a condition that is termed when the bowel is irriated but the actual reason for this diagnosis is sometimes (most of the time) unclear. IBS can be triggered from stress, from food allergies and from food intolerances to name a few. I am unsure if you have been medically diagnosed but perhaps through visiting your GP or a dietitian and engaging on a food elmination diet to see if you can pin point exactly what is triggering your IBS. There are also external reasons for IBS such as stressors in your life.
In our clinic we find that many IBS symptoms have been rectified through balancing our clients nutritional intake with their nutritional requirements. Sometimes we find that some of our IBS clients have been consuming too many total sugars in their diet well in excess of the recommended guidelines of 90g (remember this figure does vary according to the individual). Many atheltes (such as runners) can fall into this trap due to the nature of the sport and the requirements for faster releasing carbohydrates. Perhaps Chris you could take a look at your diet and see what your sugar to starch ratio is like. This would be more accurately done in a clinic where a dietitian could analyse your intake over a 7 day period after you had completed a food and symptoms tracker.
Chris the following points may help relieve your symtoms but I would strongly recommend that you firstly have your nutritional intake analysed and work on your nutritional balance and if that does not rectify then I would seek advice on undergoing a food elmination programme.
In the meantime

  • ensure that you are eating regularly though out the day do not leave more than 3 to 4 hours between meals
  • If your next meal is more than 4 hours away then consume a small low sugar snack
  • watch your fibre intake choose carbohydrates that are known to be easier to digest such as rice, quinoa, couscous, rice noodles, sweet potato, porridge.
  • make sure that each of your main meals has at least one portion of complex carbohydrates
  • try to comsume more vegetables than fruit in your day
  • stay hydrated - check your urine colour (light) to ensure hydration.

I strongly encourage individuals to find to try and find out why they are experiencing such symptoms as in some cases this can lead to nutrient malabsorption which might mean the body might not be getting all its desired nutrients.
I hope you find the above reply useful and that you find relief from you symptoms.
If I can be of any further assistance please do not hesitate to contact the healthpro office on 086 4119222 or email betterhealth@healthpro.ie

Many thanks, Harriette.

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Anonymous (not verified)

Hello Harriette,

Would you recommend food from the McDonalds Euro Saver Menu. I generally try to avoid processsed meats acting on studies from cancer researh. And with sugar in food causing so many health problems not to mention salt, is it recommended. 2 Euro sounds like a good offer.
Do you think advertising McDonalds should be treated the same as advertising cigarettes?

Regards
F

Harriette Lynch
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Joined: 2010-09-20
Posts: 35

"Hello Harriette,
Would you recommend food from the McDonalds Euro Saver Menu. I generally try to avoid processsed meats acting on studies from cancer researh. And with sugar in food causing so many health problems not to mention salt, is it recommended. 2 Euro sounds like a good offer.
Do you think advertising McDonalds should be treated the same as advertising cigarettes?

Regards
F"

 
 
Hello F,
Many thanks for your post to this forum. Sometimes when you see something that seems to be a great deal you should indeed question and challenge it. So, what I have done is over the last few days tried researching the Mc Donalds 2 euro menu (on their website and also on their facebook) but I could not find out what is on the 2 euro menu. I have not gone in store to see the menu (mainly because my days have not allowed a visit but also because my last visit to Mc Donalds was on 17th March 2004 in Australia!!).
However, on saying this I did look at the nutrition profile for some of their products and I noticed that the Big Mac yielded the following per portion 480 kcals, 28g protein, 24g Fat, 41g Carbohydrate, 2.1g Salt, 10g Saturated Fat and 4g Fibre. This would mean that for a women consuming this product would consume only 13.3% of her daily fibre content, 45% of her daily saturated fat content, 43.6% of her daily fat content and 24% of her daily calorie content.
This would mean that I would not deem this food item suited to an athletes or an recreational athletes diet as it is not giving an overall suitable balance of nutrients. Remember, when you are looking at the nutritional quality of food items you do have to be critical.
It is not only about calories  - more importantly it is about the nutrients that we consume and the balance of those nutrients over the course of the whole day. So by consuming a Big Mac although it is not that high in calories (energy) you are consuming nearly half your fat and saturated fat content for the day. I would recommend that you consume foods that were lower in overall saturated and total fat content.
If you find that you are tight on budget I would recommend that you purchase foods such as oats (perhaps your supermarkets own brand), beans, lentils, frozen vegetables and frozen fruit, check out the frozen meats & fish section too (sometimes you can get frozen chicken breasts at a lower cost than fresh from the butcher). You can have a really tasty diet even on a low budget..Perhaps I should do an article on eating on a budget...let me know if you would find this useful and if so set me a daily budget that you would find of benefit.
Well, you ask another question as to whether I think Mc Donalds should be treated in the same way as advertising cigarettes. Honestly, I think we should all be able to make our own decisions when it comes to eating and lifestyle choices. However I do believe that stronger public health messages would be of great benefit as knowledge is key when you are making a choice and I believe that everybody should have the knowledge to they then have the ability to critically analyse whether they would benefit of consuming a product such as Mc Donalds. I do believe that all food outlets should have to carry the nutritional content of the foods that they offer us to consume so we can all make informed decisions.
I hope my response has answered your query. If you would like some ideas re recipes etc please visit our facebook page - we have a few tasty recipes in conjunction with Nolan's Supermarket that you might like.
If I can be of any further assistance please do not hesitate to contact me on 086 4119222 or email: betterhealth@healthpro.ie
Yours in health and wellbeing,
Harriette
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AaronBrowne
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Joined: 2013-01-08
Posts: 18

 What's your thoughts on wheat grass juice and sprouts like mung, alfalfa, broccoli, clover etc. Also spelt pasta over whole wheat? Steak or Protoen shakes? I juice spinach, Clery, cucumber and ginger and lemon.  I have a faiy balanced diet and try to stay whole food with some organic. Any thoughts on on this type of nutrition?

Anonymous (not verified)

Hi,

I started running about 2 years ago.

I have run a few 10km's and 8 km's and a 1/2 marathon and am running about 7 to 7.30 min miles.

I notice after some races that my calf muscles are a bit sore (not tight) but sore.
I would like to know what protein shake drinks would you suggest to help with muscle fatigue and repair. I want something that does not contain too many carbs but contains protein that will also keep me from getting hungry between meals. Also is there anything else that you would suggest that would help diet wise when preparing for runs and after runs?

Thanks in advance.

Groggerz (not verified)

Hi Hilary
I have enjoyed reading your replies and have learned alot already , so many thanks Hilary.
I have just started training for a half marathon and am finding it very hard to shift the Christmas weight i piled on .
I am 5ft 4 , and 40 this summer and it took me a year the year to get down to 68kg after three pregnancies .
I undid it all having a great Christmas and am now 72kg and cannot seem to shift it back off as my body is used to my runs now . Would you have any tips in shedding this extra pounds ?.I'm doing some weight training now in the hope to shift it.

Also i drink a beer or two at the week end and a glass or two of red wine . Would i need to cut this out altogether? Whtas your thoughts on alcohol and training :)

Many thanks in advance G

Groggerz (not verified)

Hi Hilary.
I have already learned alot from your previous posts so many thanks for that .I am new to this.
I am turning 40 this year and i am 5 ft 4. it took me a year to get down to 68kg after 3 pregnanices and sadly my great Christmas has left me at 72kg again. The weight came off with the running last year but it is not budging at all now as im so much fitter. Have been training and not seen any weight loss whatsoever. I feel i have a good diet but i do like a beer or glass of red wine at the weekeknd.
Would this need to be stopped altogether in your opinion?
What are your thoughts on alcohol while training , is it a total NOno ?
I am training for a half marathon now on July 6th.
Many thanks in advance
G

Harriette Lynch
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Joined: 2010-09-20
Posts: 35

"Hi Hilary.
I have already learned alot from your previous posts so many thanks for that .I am new to this.
I am turning 40 this year and i am 5 ft 4. it took me a year to get down to 68kg after 3 pregnanices and sadly my great Christmas has left me at 72kg again. The weight came off with the running last year but it is not budging at all now as im so much fitter. Have been training and not seen any weight loss whatsoever. I feel i have a good diet but i do like a beer or glass of red wine at the weekeknd.
Would this need to be stopped altogether in your opinion?
What are your thoughts on alcohol while training , is it a total NOno ?
I am training for a half marathon now on July 6th.
Many thanks in advance
G"

Dear G,
Many thanks for your post. I see from reading your post that Christmas has gotten the better of you and you managed to gain 4 Kgs over that period. I'm delighted that you have turned to running it is a sport that I do love and offers so many benefits including weight loss.
At 5ft 4 (1.626m) and at 72 Kgs it appears your BMI is 27.2 Kg  / M (squared). This actually places you in a higher risk category towards developing a clinical condition and you would be classified as overweight. I would advise you to check out your waist circumference and identify where that lies. Ideally you would like to aim for a waist circumference between 60 -  80 cm and a BMI between 18.5  - 24.9 Kg  / m (squared). This should be done gradually. The important rule in weight loss is never to diet you must eat to your energy requirements and loose weight at a rate of 0.5  - 1 Kg per week. If your weight does come off faster I would query the technique used as this could mean that you are on a dieting programme which can lead to a reduced rate of metabolism. 
It sounds to be that firstly you need to begin to vary your training. Perhaps adding some intensity to your runs might be beneficial. I like that you are starting to cross train with weights - I would recommend following a programme that will encourage you to lift a weight for 15 reps but you should not be able to lift for a 16th rep. Alternatively a body pump style class would also be of benefit. With regarding your running I would aim to add to your training one run that is long distance (that will depend on your own ability) but something that keeps your heart rate low, I'd suggest your second run to be of a higher intensity nature such as a warm up of 10 mins and then run 1 min hard followed by 1 min easy etc for about 5 sets and then a cool down run and then your third session could involve hills reps which would elevate your heart rate nicely.
Regarding your diet the first thing I would advise is that you break your fast within 30 mins of rising  - whether you are going out training or just starting your day. Then do not leave long gaps in your day - focus on never going longer than 4 hours without eating. Think of your metabolism as a fire and that you need to fuel it with the right fuel for it to burn. Raising your metabolism is key. Also never skip any meals even if you are on the go - always cary cereal bars or nuts with you, so you always have something at your finger tips.
Maintain great hydration levels. As long as you do not any medical complications on the days that you are not training your fluid intake (including soups, stews  - fluid in foods) should be approximately 2.5 L per day. On the days that you are training then it would be slightly more.
Unfortunately, I do not know your complete history  / background so it is very hard to give you specific advise. We can conduct a nutrition analysis for you and if you live outside of Dublin we can conduct an assessment over the phone. If you would require this service the cost is €60 and please contact 086 4119222 and make a request in our office.
In the mean time I hope you find the above information useful. If I can be of any further assistance please do not hesitate to contact me on 086 4119222 or email: betterhealth@healthpro.ie
Yours in health and wellbeing,
Harriette
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Harriette Lynch
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Joined: 2010-09-20
Posts: 35

"What's your thoughts on wheat grass juice and sprouts like mung, alfalfa, broccoli, clover etc. Also spelt pasta over whole wheat? Steak or Protoen shakes? I juice spinach, Clery, cucumber and ginger and lemon. I have a faiy balanced diet and try to stay whole food with some organic. Any thoughts on on this type of nutrition?"
Hi Aaron, I just realised that I must have mised your post as I have just read it this morning.
Honestly when it comes to supplementing your nutrition there are key areas that you should consider e.g. why do you believe that you require these supplements such as wheatgrass, alfalfa etc and what benefits do you expect to gain? It is important to focus on your diet as a whole and making sure that you are getting a great balance of nutrients suited to your nutritional requirements.
When it comes to supplementing with sprouts etc there is little scientific evidence to support all the health claims that surround them. However, there is also little or no evidence that I know of that consuming these products would cause you any harm.
I personally think using the whole food approach is extremely refreshing and it is great to see you taking such interest in your diet. There are far too many people in our nation consuming highly processed foods.
So, really taking juices such as what you mention above can be a great way of ingesting some great vitamins and mineals and combining vegetables with fruit is a great way of reducing the sugar content of the juice.
I would recommend for general health that you do keep an eye on your bloods yearly to ensure that all is in check.
If you would like to have your diet analysed please do book an appointment with the healthpro office so we can provide you with a more accurate analysis of your diet in relation to your requirements.
I hope you find this post valuable and if I can be of any assistance in the future please do let my office know on 086 4119222 or email betterhealth@healthpro.ie
Many thanks,
Harriette.
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AaronBrowne
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Joined: 2013-01-08
Posts: 18

 Thanks Harriette,
I take it in addition to a whole food diet. I try to stay away from processed as much as possible. I will book in for bloods and compare them to my last set. I am interested to see how the wheatgrass has affected my hemoglobin. 

Groggerz (not verified)

Hi Hilary .
Thanks a mil for the advise.
i think my body was adjusting to the extra water intake and running as i have started to drop a little now , around a kilo in the last 2 weeks and i feel ive lost a good few inches around the place . I'm running every day other than the rest days and i'm dion HIIT training and weights as warm ups .and i' eating 5 meals a day instead of dinners , all wholemeal , high protein low sat fats etc so im on the right road i think , feel great really.

Many thanks for your advice and i will follow it thanks ,
Cheers G

Anonymous (not verified)

Hi,

I started running about 2 years ago.

I have run a few 10km's and 8 km's and a 1/2 marathon and am running about 7 to 7.30 min miles.

I notice after some races that my calf muscles are a bit sore (not tight) but sore.
I would like to know what protein shake drinks would you suggest to help with muscle fatigue and repair. I want something that does not contain too many carbs but contains protein that will also keep me from getting hungry between meals. Also is there anything else that you would suggest that would help diet wise when preparing for runs and after runs?

Thanks in advance.

peterjjoc
Offline
Joined: 2011-01-30
Posts: 12

Hi,
 
Improve Run Time - Weight Loss.

I was hoping to improve my 21k run time from 1:51 by losing some body weight, i currently weight around the 14st marker and was hoping to get down to 13st. I am 5ft 10" and 44 year old male so could afford to loss some.
Would this improve my running time by much?, roughly how much would i improve my 21k run time by?

When i run a half marathon i am fine up to about the 17k marker and then fade, is there anything i can to to prevent this?, are gels a good idea?, if so how many would you take in a half marathon?
Thanks, Peter

pebrennan08
Offline
Joined: 2012-03-28
Posts: 14

 Hi
running my first half marathon in July. Haven't used gels in any training runs so far, and probably won't now. Is there anything else I should be taking in addition to water pre race.
thanks

Harriette Lynch
Harriette Lynch's picture
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Joined: 2010-09-20
Posts: 35

"Hi
running my first half marathon in July. Haven't used gels in any training runs so far, and probably won't now. Is there anything else I should be taking in addition to water pre race.
thanks
"
Hi Pebrennan08, great to get your post on here. Yes your pre race nutrition is essential for any event be it a 10 km, 21Km or a full marathon. Carbohydrate is your main source of fuel so it is essential to be carbohydrate savvy. I'd recommend in the last 48 hours pre race to begin to reduce your fibre intake and move away from your wholegrain sources e.g. brown rice and pasta to more refined grains such as white bread, rice and pasta. This will prevent an uneasy GI tract during your race. Hydration is key and it is really important that you sip regularaly rather than consume large quantities of water at once. On race day due to the hot weather I would recommend that you might add some energy drink to your water such as High 5 or PSP22 or a similar energy brand. This will add some electrolytes and more energy to your body which is essential. However, if you have not done this in training make sure that you try it at least on a light run before your race day. If your race is Clontarf this Saturday try it tonight or on your light run pre race tomorrow. Regarding gels I would not recommend them without using them in training. Think hydrating foods such as vegetables, fruit and good complete protein such as chicken, turkey, fish (no shell fish) and consume at least a portion of carbohydrates with each of your main meals.
 
I hope this will assist your race if we can be of any further assistance please just let me know,
Many thanks,
Harriette.
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peterjjoc
Offline
Joined: 2011-01-30
Posts: 12

Hi,
 
Improve Run Time - Weight Loss.

I was hoping to improve my 21k run time from 1:51 by losing some body weight, i currently weight around the 14st marker and was hoping to get down to 13st. I am 5ft 10" and 44 year old male so could afford to loss some.
Would this improve my running time by much?, roughly how much would i improve my 21k run time by?

When i run a half marathon i am fine up to about the 17k marker and then fade, is there anything i can to to prevent this?, are gels a good idea?, if so how many would you take in a half marathon?
Thanks, Peter